Assignment I ICT (POP QUIZ)

Name: Nurhayati
Nim : 0808066028
Pps Uhamka Jakarta
ICT in Language Learning
Task I: Answer the following questions briefly and precisely! Use the book “Individual Differences in CALL” for your reference in providing your answer.
1. Since early 1980s, the utilization of computers as a mean of enhancing the language Teaching and learning has been developing significantly. Would you like to explain the underlying reasons or considerations?
2. A number of experts argue that the implementation of CALL can positively enhance the language learning due to some advantages. Would you explain some advantages of CALL?
3. Individual differences should be highlighted or taken into consideration in the implementation of CALL. Why? Provide your reasons supported by relevant theories and empirical studies!
4. Would you explain the prominent principles of designing CALL?
5. What’s your opinion about utilizing and developing CALL in Indonesia?
Is it possible or impossible? Please elaborate your arguments.

Answering Task
1. Since early 1980s, the utilization of computer as a means of enhancing the language teaching learning has been developing significantly. On the other hands, it can encourage students in learning a language and by a computer assisted learning programs students learn actively and students can also asses themselves without the fear of losing face and the teacher can easily asses the students and get feedback from students directly and it makes teacher’s job easier. For example: teacher will waste time to explain grammar but if he uses Computer or CALL teacher can reduce their time by asking the students to use their computer and study the grammar every time and everywhere they want. So teacher in the classroom can concentrate on the other skills. Today, we can find so many programs to practice “CALL” for backing processing of teaching and learning. In processing of teaching and learning there are some considerations which reflect the use of computers in language learning are utilized in the computer’s unique features. First is flexibility, Hiltz (1994; 10) states that:
Students may participate at any time of the day night that they have the time and the inclination. Opportunities for feedback from the instructor and interaction with other students are not limited to a few fixed times per week
Second is its ability, the ability how to interact with learners. Third is the possibility of merging different media in one computer program makes computer more attractive as they become more capable of presenting multiple sources of information. Hope, et al,(1984) and Ahmad et al,(1985) language .

2. Some advantages of CALL

 CALL encourages users or students to make their own decisions to develop a selective and critical reading habit which enables students to scan a large amount of information.
 CALL offers freedom for users to choose any topic of information available within the package. The table of contents denotes all topics available which can simply clicking on the box labeled for a particular topic.
 It spurs the users or students to be able to collaborate very usefully in problem solving which in itself is considered to be a good skill to acquire.
 CALL‘s flexibility of time allows the students to determine what particular topics and how long he wants to learn.
 Individual interactive learning program, the “slow” and “fast” learners can take benefit from it.

3. Individual differences should be highlighted or taken into consideration in the implementation of CALL because, there are relationship between individual differences and language learning. Variables need to be highlighted in individual differences and CALL are:
 Age
The age of learners learning second or foreign language affect their achievements; young children are supposed to be able to pick up a language more easily and better than adult (Genessee and Hamayan, 1980, 1983,1987; Ellis, 1985). It was found in long-term studies, that young children are better in the most crucial areas particularly in oral ( communicative) proficiency; they are able to achieve a native like speaking performance. In short-term studies, on the other hand, adults have an advantage; their rate of acquisition is than children, particularly in morphology and syntax. McMeniman (1984:7) state that: “age appears to be an
 Attitudes
A students who has a negative attitude toward learning a target language is not normally, interested in following a lesson or program and this, in turn , affects his/her interaction during the learning process and, possibly his / her learning achievement as well.
 Motivation
There are two types of motivations; intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Deci (1975) claims that intrinsic motivation is one which comes from the learners’ own persona and not because they lead to an extrinsic reward Intelligence
 Intelligence
There is a positive relationship between intelligence and language learning achievement
 Language aptitude
‘Aptitude’, according to Carroll (1981:84) can be defined as,
A concept which corresponds to the notion that in approaching a particular learning task or program, the individual may be thought of as possessing some current state of capacity of learning that task – if the individual is motivated, and has the opportunity to doing so. The capacity is presumed to depend on some combination of more or less enduring characteristics of the individual.
 Previous knowledge
Adolescent arrivals who have had no L2 exposure and who are not able to continue academics work in the first language while they are acquiring their second language do not have enough time left in high school to make up the lost years of academic instruction. Without special assistance, these students may never reach the 50th NCE (a sort of standardized test) or may drop out before completing high school. This is true for adolescents with a good academic background and for those whose schooling has been limited or interrupted.
 Familiarity with computer
Familiarity with computers reflects a learner’s experience of using computer
 Interaction with native-speaker of English
Interaction with native-speaker of the target language learning achievement.
 Language used for interaction with the community

4. The prominent principles of designing CALL :

 Interactivity (feedback and instruction). It refers to how the program can stimulate interaction, especially interaction between the computer and the user. It includes the effectiveness of the instructions and feedback
 Usability (flexibility), It refers to the flexibility, easy and inherent interest of the program used, and how easy it is to navigate within the program.
 Content appropriateness; is concern with the amount of material presented in the program, and how easy the material is learn and understood, and how far the material meets in student book.
 Effectiveness; it refers to how effectively the program assists language learners to improve their mastery of grammar.
 Performance (attractiveness) refers to the presentation, layout of the screen, the color and the illustrations (picture, diagram, chart, etc) used in the program.

5. Utilizing and developing CALL in Indonesia is possible t o develop Indonesia because it makes learners of the foreign language will easy to study every time and anytime they want and not only study the language but also study computer effectively. And teacher will be easy to give the information about the lesson by CALL.
A number of various studies examining the effectiveness of computer assisted language learning programs have revealed that there are significance differences in favour of computers between the language learning achievement attained by students from computer assisted language learning groups and non computer ones. (e.g, Gila 1992; Atkinson 1992; Borras, Hartoyo 1993)


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